Css positioning html

So far in this unit we've examined the display and float properties, and looked at some examples of how to use these properties to lay out a page. In this chapter, we'll explore another important property for layouts: position. Positioning allows you to take an element on the page and control where and how it's positioned relative to things such as its original starting position, other elements, or even the window itself. Depending on the type of positioning you use, the element will either remain in the document flow relative or be removed from the document flow absolute, fixed , just like with floats.

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WATCH RELATED VIDEO: Learn CSS Position In 9 Minutes

Learn CSS Positioning in Ten Steps

The position property in CSS has four legal values in addition to the ubiquitous inherit : static , relative , absolute and fixed. These values have a significant impact on how an element is rendered. An HTML document consists of a number of elements interspersed with character data text. When such a document is rendered on a computer screen or printed on paper, those elements generate rectangular boxes. Just as the set of HTML elements is divided into block-level elements and inline elements, boxes in CSS are essentially either block boxes or inline boxes.

By default, the built-in user agent style sheet in a browser makes block-level HTML elements such as p and div generate block boxes, while inline elements such as strong and span generate inline boxes. We can control the type of box that is generated using the display property. The boxes generated by the elements in a document are laid out according to a clearly defined set of rules in the CSS2.

Those rules are written for the relatively few people who write browser software to learn how CSS works though, not for those of us who design web pages for a living—or a hobby. This is why this entire course exists! As a result, the specification can be a bit difficult to understand. This is really a misnomer. Unless we apply any specific CSS declarations, block boxes are laid out vertically from top to bottom in the order they occur in the markup.

A block box will either contain only other block boxes or only inline boxes. You can specify the dimensions of a block box using the width and height properties.

You can also set both vertical and horizontal margins on them. The initial default value for width and height is auto , and the initial value for margin properties is. These factors in combination mean that a block box will by default be as wide as its parent, as illustrated in Figure 2. Inline boxes are generated by default by inline HTML elements, but there are also anonymous inline boxes generated to encompass the text content of elements.

The inline boxes are laid out horizontally, one after the other, in the order in which they occur in the markup. Depending on the direction property, the inline boxes will either be laid out from left to right direction:ltr or from right to left direction:rtl. Left-to-right direction is used with, for instance, European languages, while right-to-left direction is used with languages such as Arabic and Hebrew.

The set of inline boxes that make up one line on the screen or paper are enclosed in yet another rectangle, known as a line box. Line boxes are laid out vertically within their block-level parent, with no space between them.

We can affect the height of line boxes through the line-height property. For inline boxes we cannot specify any dimensions. We can specify horizontal margins, but not vertical margins. If necessary, an inline box will be split into several inline boxes, distributed over two or more line boxes. When such a split occurs, any horizontal margins and padding, and any vertical borders, will only apply before the first box and after the last box.

Consider a document with the following rule for em elements:. This will give you a layout somewhat like that seen in Figure 3, when the styled elements are broken over multiple lines. The vertical alignment of inline boxes within the encompassing line box is determined by the vertical-align property. The default value is baseline , which means that the inline boxes are aligned so that their text baselines line up.

The baseline is the imaginary line on which letters without descenders stand. It is placed some distance above the bottom of the line box to leave room for the descenders of lowercase letters, as shown in Figure 4. Figure 5 shows some small images with different vertical alignment. When the total width of the inline boxes within a line box is less than the width of the line box itself, the horizontal alignment is controlled by the text-align property. With text-align:justify , extra space is inserted between the inline boxes, if necessary, to make the content both left- and right-justified.

This property applies to block boxes, table cells and inline blocks, and it is inherited—Figure 6 shows the result of applying different values of the text-align property to text inside table cells. An element with position:relative is first laid out just like any static element; block-level or inline. But then something interesting happens: the generated box is shifted according to the top , bottom , left and right properties. The element still remains where it was in the static document flow.

As far as the document flow is concerned, the element has not moved—it is just the end visual result that shows the box being moved. The key to understanding how these properties work with relative positioning is to realise that they specify the edge that the movement is applied to, not the direction of movement.

In other words, the top property shifts the box relative to its top edge, the left property shifts the box relative to its left edge, and so on. The box is shifted away from the specified edge, so top:1em shifts the box 1em away from the top position—in other words, downwards. Negative numbers shift the box in the opposite direction, so bottomem is the same as top:1em.

The rules of CSS say that bottom should be ignored if top is specified. For horizontal movement it depends on the direction property. In a left-to-right environment right is ignored if both left and right are specified; in a right-to-left environment left is ignored. So what use is relative positioning?

A word of warning: this example is a bit complex. Below all this there is often a full-width footer, perhaps with a copyright statement or contact information. Figure 7 shows an example of this type of layout. Figure 7: A typical multiple column layout, with columns sandwiched between a header and a footer. This type of layout used to be created with layout tables back in the Dark Ages the s. Only two options remain: floats or absolute positioning.

The problem with floats is that they only shift to the left or right until they touch the edge of the parent block, or another float. That means floated columns have to appear in the right order in your markup. You may want to have the content before the navigation, for instance, to enhance usability for keyboard navigation and to improve search engine optimisation. The designers who, fortunately, understand accessibility and device independence have stipulated that the navigation needs to be 12em wide while the sidebar should be 14em.

To prevent lines of text from being too long, impeding readability, you need to constrain the layout to a maximum width. In order to prevent overlap in extremely narrow windows you also need to constrain the layout to a minimum width. Within those constraints, the layout should be centred horizontally within the browser window.

We will look at a workaround for that at the end of the example. In fact, you will get odd results throughout this example, even with IE7, because Internet Explorer has many strange rendering bugs. I will focus on the standards-compliant way to do things in the example, and turn to workarounds at the end.

Okay, you have your basic building blocks, but they just appear one after the other. You want three columns, so you need to start floating them. Also, the main content column is too narrow. And what happened to our footer? Remember that the values in the margin shorthand property are specified in TRouBLe order: top, right, bottom, left. We are setting the top and bottom margins to 0, the right margin to 14em for the sidebar and the left margin to 12em for the navigation.

The sidebar is now where it belongs: out in the margin, next to the content column, lining up nicely with the right-hand edges of the header and the footer. Again, the width of the navigation is 12em, but you have 1em of wrapper padding to get past so you need to shift the box 13em.

There are two things about Internet Explorer that cause this layout that cause it to fail in that browser on Windows. It takes a JScript expression as its argument and returns the return value of that expression. This can cause performance problems if the expression requires a lot of computing, since it is evaluated every time the browser needs to get the width of body. It also requires JScript to be enabled, but you can add graceful degradation, so that if say, JScript is not available, the design will falllback to something that is still usable.

This sorts out the two problems in IE6. Then you use another JScript expression to set a left margin in pixels instead of percents, again with an elastic fallback. The height for wrapper is just to trigger the Microsoft-specific hasLayout , which it needs to have for the relative positioning of the navigation element to work properly. What about IE7 then? You need to trigger hasLayout on the wrapper element.

Setting a minimum height triggers hasLayout and it causes no problem in other browsers, so it can go in your main style sheet. This may sound strange: why should you want to use relative positioning without shifting the box? The reason will be revealed in the next article, because it involves absolute positioning.

Stay tuned! Setting position:relative without shifting the box also helps with some of the strange rendering bugs in Internet Explorer. It sets the infamous hasLayout internal property, which has a profound impact on how Internet Explorer renders elements. Static positioning is the default state of affairs. Block boxes are laid out vertically in source order, while inline boxes are laid out horizontally in line boxes within those block boxes.

Relative positioning allows you to shift the generated box in one or two dimensions. The element still occupies space as if it were static, but the generated box can be shifted to another position. Relative positioning is mainly useful in combination with floats to create layouts where the presentational order differs from the source order. Next: CSS: Absolute and fixed positioning. Jump to: navigation , search.

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position: absolute; top: 0; right: 0; : position « CSS « HTML / CSS

Any offsets will be ignored and the element will not act as a position reference for absolutely positioned children. Any offsets are calculated relative to the nearest parent that has a position other than static , and the element will act as a position reference for other absolutely positioned children. Any offsets are calculated relative to the viewport and the element will act as a position reference for absolutely positioned children. Use sticky to position an element as relative until it crosses a specified threshold, then treat it as fixed until its parent is off screen. Tailwind lets you conditionally apply utility classes in different states using variant modifiers. For example, use hover:absolute to only apply the absolute utility on hover.

When you set the position relative to an element, without adding any other positioning attributes (top, bottom, right, left) nothing will happen.

Positioning HTML Elements using CSS

This tutorial examines the different layout properties available in CSS: position:static, position:relative, position:absolute, and float. The default positioning for all elements is position:static , which means the element is not positioned and occurs where it normally would in the document. Normally you wouldn't specify this unless you needed to override a positioning that had been previously set. If you specify position:relative , then you can use top or bottom , and left or right to move the element relative to where it would normally occur in the document. Notice the space where div-1 normally would have been if we had not moved it: now it is an empty space. The next element div-after did not move when we moved div That's because div-1 still occupies that original space in the document, even though we have moved it. It appears that position:relative is not very useful, but it will perform an important task later in this tutorial.

CSS Position: Relative vs Position Absolute

css positioning html

One of the best things about CSS is that it gives us the ability to position content and elements on a page in nearly any imaginable way, bringing structure to our designs and helping make content more digestible. There are a few different types of positioning within CSS, and each has its own application. One way to position elements on a page is with the float property. The float property is pretty versatile and can be used in a number of different ways.

When building a webpage, there can be multiple elements on our page, each with their own positions, uses, and designs. The position property in CSS determines how an element is positioned in a document.

CSS static and relative positioning

This is the default value for an element. Static positioned elements are displayed in the normal page flow. If you set position: relative on an element, you are now able to position it with an offset, using the properties. Take this example I made on Codepen. I create a parent container, a child container, and an inner box with some text:.

Understanding Position Property in CSS

The CSS absolute is the value for position property. This position property is used to sets how an element is positioned in the document. An element with position: absolute is arranged relative to the nearby positioning element. If an absolute arranged element does not have any element, it will use the document body area and move along with the page scrolling. Generally, position property is used to arrange elements in the top, bottom, left, and right directions. Absolute value is working with position property This position: absolute does not have any positioned ancestors; it uses the document body only.

CSS positioning - Absolute positioning Absolute positions are REALLY absolute. If you want to avoid to write over a normal text flow, you have to put the.

CSS Positioning Elements

Built using Hugo and ksucs-hugo-theme. You can find a detailed discussion in the MDN Documentation. However, you may want to override this and manually position elements, which you can do with the CSS properties position , left , top , right , and bottom.

{ Positioning. }

RELATED VIDEO: Позиционирование элементов: свойство position в CSS + разбор sticky

Do you want to improve your design skills and enhance the user experience on your website? You can build an amazing web page with a basic understanding of web design. But the main issue arises when your web project gets more detail-oriented, especially if it requires complex alignment of on-page elements. The CSS position property defines the position of an element. You can manipulate the location of an element with left , right , top , bottom , and z-index properties. Though you can use CSS Flexbox or CSS Grid to make symmetrical websites, position properties help you build asymmetrical websites by detaching each element from other elements.

The CSS position property defines, as the name says, how the element is positioned on the web page. If you are interested in reading about the font properties, articles about the relative font size and CSS columns might be of interest.

Explore your training options in 10 minutes Get Matched. The position CSS property has five values: static, fixed, relative, sticky, and absolute. Positioning elements in the right place based on a specification is an important part of good web design. The position property has five values that you can use to define how an element should be positioned on a web page. This tutorial will discuss, with examples, how to use the position property to position an element on a web page. The position property allows you to define the position of an element on a web page. The syntax for the position property is as follows:.

The position CSS property sets how an element is positioned in a document. The top , right , bottom , and left properties determine the final location of positioned elements. The element is positioned according to the normal flow of the document. The top , right , bottom , left , and z-index properties have no effect.

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